Essig, E. O. 1926. Insects of Western North America. The MacMillan Company, NY, p. 768.
Johnson, Warren T. and Howard H. Lyon. 1988. Insects that Feed on Trees and Shrubs, 2nd edition, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY., pp 132-3.
Krombein, K. V., et al. 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. pp 49, 83, 93, 94, 105, 106, 115.
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